Found 5 publication(s)
Seeler, T. (2020): Inter- and Intraspecific Variation of Tree Functional Leaf Traits at Different Elevations in the Ecuadorian Andes University of Goettingen, master thesis
Giray, K. (2017): Effects of moderate nitrogen and/or phosphorus addition on tree leaf traits in Ecuadorian tropical montane forests University of Goettingen, master thesis
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- Abstract: Ecosystem services, prov...
- Keywords: | NUMEX | fertilization | foliar N | foliar P | species traits | Elevation gradient | leaf properties |
Abstract:Ecosystem services, provided from tropical forests, are indispensable for human beings. Coherencies in the system, their networks, drivers and various underlying pathways are not completely understood yet. Elucidation on directions of key nutrients and changes in organisms delivers the opportunity to get an overview about these relations. Leaf functional traits are one important component to uncover those cascades and organizations. With their fast respond to environmental conditions, changes can be detected. Since, tropical regions suffer from increasing atmospheric inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), it is a need to investigate these progressions and predict future scenarios. The alarming fact, that these anthropogenic caused input have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of tropical forests leads to a crucial study topic. Furthermore, questions should be answered if these increased inputs have a comparable influence on different elevations, based on identification the limiting nutrients. To forecast these impacts the Nutrient Manipulation Experiment (NUMEX) has been conducted since 2008. It gained to show, that Neotropical montane forests respond rapidly to moderate nutrient additions of N (50 kg ha-1 yr-1) and P (10 kg ha-1 yr-1). Within the present study, the eight most abundant tree species from the NUMEX sites were analyzed to their leaf functional traits from three elevations (altitude above sea level) in an Ecuadorian montane forest. The premontane forest in Bombuscaro (1,000 m) contains the species Clarisia racemosa and Pouteria torta. Further, in San Francisco (2,000 m), Alchornea lojaensis, Graffenrieda emarginata, Hieronyma fendleri, and Myrcia sp., were selected. In Cajanuma (3,000 m), the upper montane forest contains Hedyosmum purpurascens and Weinmannia loxensis. The fertilization effects were calculated, using a mixed effect model, including study year and treatment as fixed effects and block and individual as random effects. The results show, that foliar N decrease over the years, whereas, Foliar P conversely increases. Further, the relation of nitrogen and phosphorus (N:P) is decreasing during the study years. Upwards trends for ?15N are best replicated for the San Francisco site. With the leaf trait nutrient resorption efficiency (NuR) for N and P a decline over the study years is proceeding. In addition, leaf area (LA) and specific leaf area (SLA) tend to decrease. In conclusive processes over the study years might be the result of microclimatic events. The sites differ in that San Francisco and Cajanuma respond more similar in some leaf functional traits, compared to them from Bombuscaro. It can be deduced that changes in the analyzed leaf traits over the last eight years between the sites and species are not significantly different. Summarizing, results represent the emphasis on the considerable influence of nutrient addition with notably changing foliar nutrient and show that the predicted nutrient deposition will probably change the ecosystem dynamics sustained.
Bergmann, A. (2017): Der Einfluss von N und/oder P-Düngung auf die Herbivorie im tropischen Bergregenwald Ecuadors University of Goettingen, master thesis
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- Abstract: Tropical montane forests...
- Keywords: | NUMEX | fertilization | foliar N | foliar P | herbivory | Elevation gradient |
Abstract:Tropical montane forests of the Andes belong to the hotspots of biodiversity. But these nutrient poor ecosystems are simultaneously threatened by increased element inputs of nitrogen and phosphor in nutrient cycles. NUMEX-Projekt simulates the expected nutrient inputs in the for-ests and quantifies the changes of this ecosystem. In line of this study litter samples were collected by littertraps during a working period from February till May 2016. Leaf litter produc-tion, parameters of leaf morphology (leaf area and specific leaf area) and litter nutrients of nitrogen and phosphor were determined. Additionally, the parameters of herbivory (leaf mass loss and leaf area loss) were calculated by measuring holes area. The variation of these pa-rameters along an altitudinal gradient from 1.000 m.a.s.l. to 3.000 m.a.s.l. was investigated. Besides the variation after nitrogen and/or phosphor addition was explored. Furthermore, the extend of nutrients, lost through herbivory, was identified for the stand level. Terminatory the influence of two soil parameters (C/N ratio and Presin) was discussed. There is a significant influence of altitude (p<0,05) on leaf morphology (leaf area: 1.000 m.a.s.l: 26,4±1,6 cm², 3.000 m.a.s.l: 7,4±1,0 cm², specific leaf area: 1.000 m.a.s.l: 99,7±4,1 cm²·g-1, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 56,1±6,6 cm²·g-1), leaf nutrients of nitrogen (1.000 m.a.s.l: 15,3±0,5 g·kg-1, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 6,6±0,7 g·kg-1) and phosphor (1.000 m.a.s.l: 0,54±0,03 g·kg-1, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 0,25±0,03 g·kg-1) and also on the parameters of herbivory: holes area (1.000 m.a.s.l: 1,8±0,2 cm², 3.000 m.a.s.l: 0,3±0,1 cm²) and leaf area loss (1.000 m.a.s.l: 6,8±0,4 %, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 3,6±0,6 %). Nutrient addition did not lead to distinct results according to the variation of measured param-eters. NP fertilization had a positive effect on leaf area and P fertilization a positive effect on specific leaf area. Leaf nutrients showed various answers. For this parameter, NP fertilization causes significantly raised nitrogen and phosphor concentrations in litter in each site. Leaf litter production in 1.000 m.a.s.l site significantly decreased through NP fertilization. Referring to herbivory only a little number of significant effects were detected. Holes area increased on 2.000 m.a.s.l site by NP addition while leaf area loss in 1.000 m.a.s.l site – as well as leaf area production – decreased. On stand level, there was no variation of leaf area loss. Soil parameters have a higher impact on measured parameters on stand level. Specific leaf area and leaf area loss correlate positively with soil C/N of upper mineral soil. Correlations of these parameters with plant available phosphor Presin is negative. Nutrient losses on stand level decrease with altitude. There was a negative effect of NP addition on nitrogen loss in 1.000 m.a.s.l site and a positive effect of NP addition on phosphor loss in all sites.
Cárate Tandalla, D.; Leuschner, C. & Homeier, J. (2015): Performance of Seedlings of a Shade-Tolerant Tropical Tree Species after Moderate Addition of N and P. Frontiers in Earth Science 3, 75.
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- DOI: 10.3389/feart.2015.00075
- Abstract: Nitrogen deposition to t...
- Keywords: | Ecuador | growth | NUMEX | foliar N | foliar P | tropical tree seedlings | herbivory | Pouteria torta |
Abstract:Nitrogen deposition to tropical forests is predicted to increase in future in many regions due to agricultural intensification. We conducted a seedling transplantation experiment in a tropical premontane forest in Ecuador with a locally abundant late-successional tree species (Pouteria torta, Sapotaceae) aimed at detecting species-specific responses to moderate N and P addition and to understand how increasing nutrient availability will affect regeneration. From locally collected seeds, 320 seedlings were produced and transplanted to the plots of the Ecuadorian Nutrient Manipulation Experiment (NUMEX) with three treatments (moderate N addition: 50 kg N ha?1 year?1, moderate P addition: 10 kg P ha?1 year?1 and combined N and P addition) and a control (80 plants per treatment). After 12 months, mortality, relative growth rate, leaf nutrient content and leaf herbivory rate were measured. N and NP addition significantly increased the mortality rate (70 vs. 54% in the control). However, N and P addition also increased the diameter growth rate of the surviving seedlings. N and P addition did not alter foliar nutrient concentrations and leaf N:P ratio, but N addition decreased the leaf C:N ratio and increased SLA. P addition (but not N addition) resulted in higher leaf area loss to herbivore consumption and also shifted carbon allocation to root growth. This fertilization experiment with a common rainforest tree species conducted in old-growth forest shows that already moderate doses of added N and P are affecting seedling performance which most likely will have consequences for the competitive strength in the understory and the recruitment success of P. torta. Simultaneous increases in growth, herbivory and mortality rates make it difficult to assess the species' overall performance and predict how a future increase in nutrient deposition will alter the abundance of this species in the Andean tropical montane forests.
Wittich, B.; Horna, V.; Homeier, J. & Leuschner, C. (2012): Altitudinal decrease in photosynthetic capacity in tropical trees: A case study from Ecuador and a pantropical literature analysis. Ecosystems 15, 958-973.
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- DOI: 10.1007/s10021-012-9556-9
- Abstract: In tropical mountains, t...
- Keywords: | altitudinal gradient | foliar N | foliar P | leaf dark respiration | light-saturated net photosynthesis | tropical lowland forests | mature trees | C source limitation | tropical montane forest |
Abstract:In tropical mountains, trees are the dominant life form from sea level to above 4,000-m altitude under highly variable thermal conditions (range of mean annual temperatures: <8 to >28C). How light-saturated net photosynthesis of tropical trees adapts to variation in temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration, and further environmental factors, that change along elevation gradients, is not precisely known. With gas exchange measurements in mature trees, we determined light-saturated net photosynthesis at ambient temperature (T) and [CO2] (Asat) of 40 tree species from 21 families in tropical mountain forests at 1000-, 2000-, and 3000-m elevation in southern Ecuador. We tested the hypothesis that stand-level averages of Asat and leaf dark respiration (RD) per leaf area remain constant with elevation. Standlevel means of Asat were 8.8, 11.3, and 7.2 lmol CO2 m-2 s-1; those of RD 0.8, 0.6, and 0.7 lmol CO2 m-2 s-1 at 1000-, 2000-, and 3000-m elevation, respectively, with no significant altitudinal trend. We obtained coefficients of among-species variation in Asat and RD of 20?53% (n = 10?16 tree species per stand). Examining our data in the context of a pan-tropical Asat data base for mature tropical trees (c. 170 species from 18 sites at variable elevation) revealed that area-based Asat decreases in tropical mountains by, on average, 1.3 lmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per km altitude increase (or by 0.2 lmol CO2 m-2 s-1 per K temperature decrease). The Asat decrease occurred despite an increase in leaf mass per area with altitude. Local geological and soil fertility conditions and related foliar N and P concentrations considerably influenced the altitudinal Asat patterns. We conclude that elevation is an important influencing factor of the photosynthetic activity of tropical trees. Lowered Asat together with a reduced stand leaf area decrease canopy C gain with elevation in tropical mountains.