Found 3 publication(s)
Giray, K. (2017): Effects of moderate nitrogen and/or phosphorus addition on tree leaf traits in Ecuadorian tropical montane forests University of Goettingen, master thesis
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- Abstract: Ecosystem services, prov...
- Keywords: | NUMEX | fertilization | foliar N | foliar P | species traits | Elevation gradient | leaf properties |
Abstract:Ecosystem services, provided from tropical forests, are indispensable for human beings. Coherencies in the system, their networks, drivers and various underlying pathways are not completely understood yet. Elucidation on directions of key nutrients and changes in organisms delivers the opportunity to get an overview about these relations. Leaf functional traits are one important component to uncover those cascades and organizations. With their fast respond to environmental conditions, changes can be detected. Since, tropical regions suffer from increasing atmospheric inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), it is a need to investigate these progressions and predict future scenarios. The alarming fact, that these anthropogenic caused input have unknown consequences for the structure and functioning of tropical forests leads to a crucial study topic. Furthermore, questions should be answered if these increased inputs have a comparable influence on different elevations, based on identification the limiting nutrients. To forecast these impacts the Nutrient Manipulation Experiment (NUMEX) has been conducted since 2008. It gained to show, that Neotropical montane forests respond rapidly to moderate nutrient additions of N (50 kg ha-1 yr-1) and P (10 kg ha-1 yr-1). Within the present study, the eight most abundant tree species from the NUMEX sites were analyzed to their leaf functional traits from three elevations (altitude above sea level) in an Ecuadorian montane forest. The premontane forest in Bombuscaro (1,000 m) contains the species Clarisia racemosa and Pouteria torta. Further, in San Francisco (2,000 m), Alchornea lojaensis, Graffenrieda emarginata, Hieronyma fendleri, and Myrcia sp., were selected. In Cajanuma (3,000 m), the upper montane forest contains Hedyosmum purpurascens and Weinmannia loxensis. The fertilization effects were calculated, using a mixed effect model, including study year and treatment as fixed effects and block and individual as random effects. The results show, that foliar N decrease over the years, whereas, Foliar P conversely increases. Further, the relation of nitrogen and phosphorus (N:P) is decreasing during the study years. Upwards trends for ?15N are best replicated for the San Francisco site. With the leaf trait nutrient resorption efficiency (NuR) for N and P a decline over the study years is proceeding. In addition, leaf area (LA) and specific leaf area (SLA) tend to decrease. In conclusive processes over the study years might be the result of microclimatic events. The sites differ in that San Francisco and Cajanuma respond more similar in some leaf functional traits, compared to them from Bombuscaro. It can be deduced that changes in the analyzed leaf traits over the last eight years between the sites and species are not significantly different. Summarizing, results represent the emphasis on the considerable influence of nutrient addition with notably changing foliar nutrient and show that the predicted nutrient deposition will probably change the ecosystem dynamics sustained.
Bergmann, A. (2017): Der Einfluss von N und/oder P-Düngung auf die Herbivorie im tropischen Bergregenwald Ecuadors University of Goettingen, master thesis
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- Abstract: Tropical montane forests...
- Keywords: | NUMEX | fertilization | foliar N | foliar P | herbivory | Elevation gradient |
Abstract:Tropical montane forests of the Andes belong to the hotspots of biodiversity. But these nutrient poor ecosystems are simultaneously threatened by increased element inputs of nitrogen and phosphor in nutrient cycles. NUMEX-Projekt simulates the expected nutrient inputs in the for-ests and quantifies the changes of this ecosystem. In line of this study litter samples were collected by littertraps during a working period from February till May 2016. Leaf litter produc-tion, parameters of leaf morphology (leaf area and specific leaf area) and litter nutrients of nitrogen and phosphor were determined. Additionally, the parameters of herbivory (leaf mass loss and leaf area loss) were calculated by measuring holes area. The variation of these pa-rameters along an altitudinal gradient from 1.000 m.a.s.l. to 3.000 m.a.s.l. was investigated. Besides the variation after nitrogen and/or phosphor addition was explored. Furthermore, the extend of nutrients, lost through herbivory, was identified for the stand level. Terminatory the influence of two soil parameters (C/N ratio and Presin) was discussed. There is a significant influence of altitude (p<0,05) on leaf morphology (leaf area: 1.000 m.a.s.l: 26,4±1,6 cm², 3.000 m.a.s.l: 7,4±1,0 cm², specific leaf area: 1.000 m.a.s.l: 99,7±4,1 cm²·g-1, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 56,1±6,6 cm²·g-1), leaf nutrients of nitrogen (1.000 m.a.s.l: 15,3±0,5 g·kg-1, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 6,6±0,7 g·kg-1) and phosphor (1.000 m.a.s.l: 0,54±0,03 g·kg-1, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 0,25±0,03 g·kg-1) and also on the parameters of herbivory: holes area (1.000 m.a.s.l: 1,8±0,2 cm², 3.000 m.a.s.l: 0,3±0,1 cm²) and leaf area loss (1.000 m.a.s.l: 6,8±0,4 %, 3.000 m.a.s.l: 3,6±0,6 %). Nutrient addition did not lead to distinct results according to the variation of measured param-eters. NP fertilization had a positive effect on leaf area and P fertilization a positive effect on specific leaf area. Leaf nutrients showed various answers. For this parameter, NP fertilization causes significantly raised nitrogen and phosphor concentrations in litter in each site. Leaf litter production in 1.000 m.a.s.l site significantly decreased through NP fertilization. Referring to herbivory only a little number of significant effects were detected. Holes area increased on 2.000 m.a.s.l site by NP addition while leaf area loss in 1.000 m.a.s.l site – as well as leaf area production – decreased. On stand level, there was no variation of leaf area loss. Soil parameters have a higher impact on measured parameters on stand level. Specific leaf area and leaf area loss correlate positively with soil C/N of upper mineral soil. Correlations of these parameters with plant available phosphor Presin is negative. Nutrient losses on stand level decrease with altitude. There was a negative effect of NP addition on nitrogen loss in 1.000 m.a.s.l site and a positive effect of NP addition on phosphor loss in all sites.
Butz, P.; Raffelsbauer, V.; Graefe, S.; Peters, T.; Cueva, E.; Hölscher, D. & Bräuning, A. (2016): Tree responses to moisture fluctuations in a neotropical dry forest as potential climate change indicators. Ecological Indicators 1(1), 1-13.
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- DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.11.021
- Abstract: Trees in tropical dry fo...
- Keywords: | Ecuador | Phenology | Elevation gradient | Sap flux | Seasonality | Tree indicator |
Abstract:Trees in tropical dry forests (TDFs) have manifold drought coping strategies including succulence of different plant organs, wood anatomical traits and leaf phenology. As water availability to plants is the limiting factor for physiological activity, changes in precipitation patterns are assumed to have strong influences on tree phenology, growth and water turnover. Our objectives were to assess patterns in leaf phenology, radial stem circumference changes and sap flux responses to fluctuating moisture regimes of selected species. Based on these findings we evaluated the potential suitability as indicator species for climate change effects. The study was implemented at different elevational positions in a submontane dry forest of southern Ecuador. Annual rainfall is 600 mm with an eight months dry period; moisture availability slightly increases with altitude because of moist air coming from the Pacific. At three altitudes,we studied the tree species Ceiba trichistandra (leaf deciduous, stem succulent), Eriotheca ruizii (leaf deciduous, root succulent) and Erythrina velutina (leaf deciduous). Reversible stem swelling and shrinking was observed for all three species during the whole study period and at all positions at the altitudinal gradient. However, it was most pronounced and sensitive in the stem succulent C. trichistandra and at the lowest (driest) position. C. trichistandra flushed leaves at dry season intermittent rain events, and from dry to wet season leaf out was earlier, and in this period sap flux was high while stem circumference decreased. Length of the leaved periods of all species increased with altitude. Thus, clear differences among species, topographic positions, radial growth and tree water use patterns are revealed; especially C. trichistandra responded very sensitive to fluctuating moisture regimes with leaf phenology, sap flux and stem diameter variations, and can be regarded as a sensitive indicator for assessing climatic variations.