Tropical dry forests are an intricate ecosystem with special adaptations to periods of drought. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are essential for plant survival in all terrestrial ecosystems but might be of even greater importance in dry forests as plant growth is limited due to nutrient and water deficiency during the dry season. Tropical dry forests in Ecuador are highly endangered, but studies about AMF communities are scarce. We investigated the AMF community of a premontane semi-deciduous dry forest in South Ecuador during the dry season. We estimated AMF diversity, distribution, and composition of the study site based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and compared the results to those from the tropical montane rainforest and páramo in South Ecuador. OTU delimitation was based on part of the small ribosomal subunit obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Nearly all OTUs were Glomeraceae. The four frequent OTUs were Glomus, and comparison with the MaarjAM database revealed these to be globally distributed with a wide range of ecological adaptations. Several OTUs are shared with virtual taxa from dry forests in Africa. Ordination analysis of AMF communities from the tropical dry and montane rainforests in South Ecuador revealed a unique AMF community in the dry forest with only few overlapping OTUs. Most OTUs that were found in both dry and rainforests and on the two continents were globally distributed Glomus.