In 2008, a booklet “The Mountain Rainforest: Scientific Discoveries in a Highly Diverse Eco - system in Southern Ecuador” was published by a German Research Unit, informing the public about 10 years of biodiversity and ecosystem research in the Eastern range of the tropical Andes of Ecuador. The authors (K. Kiss & A. Bräuning) had compiled 14 contributions on diversity, dynamic processes and potential use of the primary forest and of its agricultural replacement systems. Another 8 years of research in the area have immensely widened the understanding of the ecosystem and its value for science in general and for the region in particular. The new book “Biodiversity Hotspot: Tropical Mountain Rainforest”, starting with an introductory chapter on the research area as the second hottest biodiversity hotspot worldwide, presents in an apprehensible way the major results of 16 collaborative projects addressing questions of basic as well as applied research. Understanding ecosystem components and processes is the prerequisite for an assessment of its stability under climate and land use changes. With this book the authors acknowledge the long-standing support of the work by the German Research Foundation and by the foundation Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional in Loja and San Diego, as well as the fruitful collaboration with our Ecuadorian partners, the Universidad Tecnica Particular de Loja, the Universidad Nacional de Loja, the Universidad de Cuenca and the Universidad de Azuay, and the local weather service INAMHI. We also appreciate very much the important contributions of our non-university research partners beyond NCI, ETAPA EP (Empresa Pública Municipal de Telecomunicaciones, Agua potable, lcantarillado y Saneamiento de Cuenca - Ecuador), Gobierno Municipal de Zamora and the regional water fund FORAGUA (Fondo Regional del Agua).